Critique of the Hypothesis of Anomalous Dispertion in Certain Solar Phenomena
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Organometallics in homogeneous catalysis. Nuclear chemistry: nuclear reactions, fission and fusion, radio-analytical techniques and activation analysis.
Analytical chemistry- separation, spectroscopic, electro- and thermoanalytical methods. Bioinorganic chemistry: photosystems, porphyrins, metalloenzymes, oxygen transport, electron- transfer reactions; nitrogen fixation, metal complexes in medicine. IUPAC nomenclature of organic molecules including regio- and stereoisomers.
Principles of stereochemistry: Configurational and conformational isomerism in acyclic and cyclic compounds; stereogenicity, stereoselectivity, enantioselectivity, diastereoselectivity and asymmetric induction. Aromaticity: Benzenoid and non-benzenoid compounds - generation and reactions. Organic reactive intermediates: Generation, stability and reactivity of carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and nitrenes. Organic reaction mechanisms involving addition, elimination and substitution reactions with electrophilic, nucleophilic or radical species. Determination of reaction pathways.
Common named reactions and rearrangements - applications in organic synthesis. Organic transformations and reagents: Functional group interconversion including oxidations and reductions; common catalysts and reagents organic, inorganic, organometallic and enzymatic. Chemo, regio and stereoselective transformations. Concepts in organic synthesis: Retrosynthesis, disconnection, synthons, linear and convergent synthesis, umpolung of reactivity and protecting groups.
Asymmetric synthesis: Chiral auxiliaries, methods of asymmetric induction - substrate, reagent and catalyst controlled reactions; determination of enantiomeric and diastereomeric excess; enantio-discrimination. Resolution - optical and kinetic. Pericyclic reactions - electrocyclisation, cycloaddition, sigmatropic rearrangements and other related concerted reactions.
Principles and applications of photochemical reactions in organic chemistry. Synthesis and reactivity of common heterocyclic compounds containing one or two heteroatoms O, N, S. Chemistry of natural products: Carbohydrates, proteins and peptides, fatty acids, nucleic acids, terpenes, steroids and alkaloids. Biogenesis of terpenoids and alkaloids. Basic principles of quantum mechanics: Postulates; operator algebra; exactly-solvable systems: particle-in-a-box, harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom, including shapes of atomic orbitals; orbital and spin angular momenta; tunneling.
Approximate methods of quantum mechanics: Variational principle; perturbation theory up to second order in energy; applications.
Hofmeister Phenomena: An Update on Ion Specificity in Biology | Chemical Reviews
Atomic structure and spectroscopy; term symbols; many-electron systems and antisymmetry principle. Chemical applications of group theory; symmetry elements; point groups; character tables; selection rules. Molecular spectroscopy: Rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules; electronic spectra; IR and Raman activities - selection rules; basic principles of magnetic resonance.
Chemical thermodynamics: Laws, state and path functions and their applications; thermodynamic description of various types of processes; Maxwell's relations; spontaneity and equilibria; temperature and pressure dependence of thermodynamic quantities; Le Chatelier principle; elementary description of phase transitions; phase equilibria and phase rule; thermodynamics of ideal and non-ideal gases, and solutions.
Statistical thermodynamics: Boltzmann distribution; kinetic theory of gases; partition functions and their relation to thermodynamic quantities - calculations for model systems. Electrochemistry: Nernst equation, redox systems, electrochemical cells; Debye-Huckel theory; electrolytic conductance - Kohlrausch's law and its applications; ionic equilibria; conductometric and potentiometric titrations. Chemical kinetics: Empirical rate laws and temperature dependence; complex reactions; steady state approximation; determination of reaction mechanisms; collision and transition state theories of rate constants; unimolecular reactions; enzyme kinetics; salt effects; homogeneous catalysis; photochemical reactions.
Colloids and surfaces: Stability and properties of colloids; isotherms and surface area; heterogeneous catalysis. Solid state: Crystal structures; Bragg's law and applications; band structure of solids. Data analysis: Mean and standard deviation; absolute and relative errors; linear regression; covariance and correlation coefficient.
Organic chemistry: Chemistry of the following name reactions: Birch reduction, Benzil-benzilic acid rearrangement, Friedel-Crafts reaction, Free radical rearrangement, Grignard reaction, Gattermann-Koch reaction, Mannich reaction, Michael reaction, Pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement, Sandmeyer reaction and Vilsmeier reaction.
Pharmacology and Medicinal chemistry: Types of receptors, drug-receptor interaction including signal transduction, mechanism, drug action and adverse drug reactions. General pathways of drug metabolism, basic concepts and application of prodrug design. Mechanism of. Spectroscopic techniques: Introduction, instrumentation, basic principle, interpretation of spectra and applications of UV-visible spectroscopy, Infra-red spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy.
Chromatographic techniques: Introduction, instrumentation, basic principle and applications of. Preformulation studies: Introduction, goals of preformulation, physicochemical properties, criteria for selection of drug and excipients, compatibility tests. Pharmaceutics and drug delivery systems: Drug absorption, distribution, biotransformation. Pharmacogostical studies: General methods of extraction, isolation, purification and preliminary phytochemical screening methods.
Factors affecting cultivation, collection, processing and storage of crude drugs. Pharmacognostic study of drugs under glycosides and alkaloids. Organoleptic evaluation of crude drugs. Theory of Production and Cost. Factor Pricing. Elements of General Equilibrium and Welfare Economics.